Complete Checklist

The order of the works in the checklist corresponds loosely to their arrangement in the exhibition.

Complete Checklist (click for larger images)

Édouard Manet (1832–1883)
Exotic Flower (Woman in a Mantilla), 1868
Etching and aquatint printed in brown and black on cream laid paper
Sheet: 14 1/4 x 9 9/16 in. (36.2 x 24.3 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1986.18

Manet produced this Goyaesque figure for inclusion in an 1869 publication of etchings and poems. It appeared side by side with a sonnet by the contemporary poet Armand Renaud about a woman’s intoxicating beauty.

Édouard Manet (1832–1883) 
Execution of Maximilian, 1868, printed 1884
Lithograph on white chine collé on white wove paper 
Sheet: 20 ¼ x 26 5/8 in. (51.4 x 67.7)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, Acquired in memory of Rafael Fernandez (Curator of Prints and Drawings, 1975–1994), with contributions from his friends, colleagues, and students, 2000.4

In 1867, Napoleon III of France appointed Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian emperor of Mexico, which was then under French occupation. Realizing the impossibility of ruling through Maximilian, Napoleon gradually withdrew military support, leaving Maximilian unprotected. On June 19, 1867, Maximilian and two of his generals were executed by Mexican nationalists, an event that sparked a storm of controversy in France. Manet dedicated multiple canvases, as well as this lithograph, to the incident. The print was intended for wide circulation but banned from publications by the French government until after the artist’s death.

Édouard Manet (1832–1883) 
The Barricade, 1871, printed 1884
Lithograph on cream chine collé on white wove paper
Sheet: 25 1/16 x 21 13/16 in. (63.7 x 55.4 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 2007.7.1

The Barricade represents the bloody repression of Parisian rebels — the Communards — by France's national guard in 1871. The sketch-like quality of the lithographic crayon makes it appear as if the artist captured the horrific action while it was occurring. 

Édouard Manet (1832–1883) 
At the Café, 1874
Gillotage on beige wove paper
Sheet: 12 1/2 x 16 1/4 in. (31.7 x 41.2 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1962.82 

This sheet is one of very few known impressions of Manet’s gillotage of a scene in the Café Guerbois, a Parisian establishment frequented by artists and writers. Gillotage was a new photomechanical process capable of conveying painterly effects. 

Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1824–1898) 
Study of a Woman’s Head, c. 1865
Graphite with stumping on beige wove paper
6 7/8 x 5 5/16 in. (17.4 x 13.5 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1955.1716 

The idealized, chiseled features of the head in this study bring to mind classical sculpture, which Puvis de Chavannes emulated in much of his work. By stumping — rubbing the graphite into the grainy paper with a small roll of leather — he achieves a smooth, stone-like finish, particularly in the hair. 

William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825–1905) 
Study of Venus for “Apollo and the Muses in Olympus,” c. 1867
Graphite with touches of white chalk on beige wove paper
18 7/16 x 12 in. (46.8 x 30.5 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1955.1578 

This study for one of the figures in the ceiling of the Grand Théâtre in Bordeaux embodies the academic principles of proportion and finish to which Bouguereau fully subscribed. The figure of Venus accords precisely with the classical ratio of a body exactly seven times the length of its head. 

Edgar Degas (1834–1917) 
Studies of the Borghese Gladiator, c. 1853–56
Black and red chalks on cream laid paper 
9 1/2 x 12 5/16 in. (24.2 x 31.3 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1971.41

Underlying Degas’s prowess as a draftsman was a thorough academic training that included drawing after Old Master paintings and Greek and Roman sculpture in the Louvre. An example of this practice, this student work combines images of the celebrated antique marble gladiator, represented from different viewpoints, with the profile of the head of another sculpture.

Edgar Degas (1834–1917) 
Two Portrait Studies of a Man, c. 1856–57
Graphite with stumping and touches of white chalk on pink wove paper
17 5/16 x 11 3/8 in. (44 x 28.9 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1955.1393

This virtuoso drawing was made from life during Degas’s Italian sojourn. The artist studied the half-length figure up close, ingeniously combining two views into a harmonious composition. The facial features and smooth skin are rendered lifelike through fine gradations of light and shadow, achieved through blended strokes of graphite and the addition of white highlights. 

Edgar Degas (1834–1917)
Study for “Dead Fox in the Forest,” c. 1861–64
Black and red chalks on cream wove paper
8 1/16 x 10 15/16 in. (20.4 x 27.7 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1955.1396

In this delicate sheet from early in Degas’s career, the artist observes a dead fox’s limp body. Long and short directional strokes coalesce into a convincing representation of the coarse fur of the animal’s coat while a combination of looser marks with the white of the paper suggests the softer underbelly. The red stamp bearing Degas’s name at lower left was applied to this sheet — and to the many others that remained in the artist’s studio until his death — on the occasion of his estate sales of 1918 and 1919. 

Edgar Degas (1834–1917) 
Study for “Madame Julie Burtey,” c. 1867 
Black and dark-brown graphite on blued white wove paper
12 1/16 x 8 1/2 in. (30.6 x 21.6 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1955.1406

Along with some notebook sketches and a nearly full-length seated study, this work led to an oil painting (unfinished) now in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. The inscription “Mme Jules Bertin,” one of the many names under which the subject has been known, was added by a later hand. 


  • The Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute in Williamstown, Massachusetts,  is one of the foremost art museums and research centers in the country. Founded by the American collector and heir to the Singer sewing machine fortune Robert Sterling Clark (1877-1956) and his wife Francine (1876-1960), the museum opened to the public in 1955. Assembled by the Clarks and since expanded, the collection has noted holdings of paintings, sculpture, decorative art, and  works on paper from the Renaissance to the early twentieth century.

    In the summer of 2014 the Clark completed its campus expansion program with the opening of a new visitor, exhibition, and conference center designed by Tadao Ando.

    Edgar Degas (1834–1917), Two Portrait Studies of a Man, c. 1856–57 »

  • Masterpieces of Lithography by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864–1901) 

    Of aristocratic descent, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec immersed himself in the world  of Parisian dancehalls, brothels, and cafés and created indelible images of its  inhabitants. Deftly working on the multiple stones required to make a lithograph  of more than one color, he developed a distinctive graphic style characterized by  a bright palette, attenuated forms, and expressive line. His inventive methods  of spraying ink onto the printing surface to create mists of color and employing  metallic powders result in dazzling atmospheric effects. In these works, he  offers an insider’s view of Paris’s underbelly, where different classes intermingle  and spectacle has a place both on and off stage. Matching the modernity of his  subjects with an unmistakably modern style, he defined the image of fin-de-siècle  Paris for all subsequent generations.