Complete Checklist

The order of the works in the checklist corresponds loosely to their arrangement in the exhibition.

Complete Checklist (click for larger images)

Honoré Daumier (1808–1879) 
The Drinkers, c. 1860
Watercolor, pen and ink, and charcoal on cream laid paper
9 7/16 x 10 1/2 in. (23.9 x 26.7 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1955.1504


In this depiction of laborers in blue work aprons or overalls, Daumier treats the subject of drink-inspired song. The two men at center belt out a tune to the apparent amusement, or embarrassment, of their companion at left. At right, a fourth man devotes full attention to his beverage.

Honoré Daumier (1808–1879) 
Three Lawyers Conversing, c. 1862–65
Watercolor, pen and ink, charcoal, chalk, and gouache on cream wove paper
12 15/16 x 9 3/4 in. (32.9 x 24.8 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1955.1499


Lawyers appear frequently in Daumier’s satires. Having been jailed for his political caricatures, the artist had ample opportunity to see lawyers at work. This trio’s upturned noses suggest an undeserved attitude of authority, and their theatrical poses and symmetrical arrangement underscore the artificiality of their conduct.  

François Bonvin (1817–1887) 
Servant Knitting, 1861
Charcoal and black chalk with stumping and erasing on beige laid paper 
15 11/16 x 12 5/16 in. (39.8 x 31.3 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 2012.12


A woman in a humble interior concentrates on her knitting. Bonvin’s precise handling of chalk and charcoal captures the play of light and shadow on her face and pristine white apron. Emulating seventeenth-century Dutch genre paintings, Bonvin produced many such scenes of daily life to great acclaim. 

Charles-François Daubigny (1817–1878) 
Cows at a Watering Hole, c. 1863
Red chalk with stumping on cream wove paper
11 1/8 x 17 7/16 in. (28.3 x 44.3 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1991.2


Daubigny belonged to a group of artists who embraced the local environment as their primary subject. Here he explores the reflective surface of still water in the warm light of a rising or setting sun. 

Jean-François Millet (1814–1875) 
The Sower, c. 1865
Pastel and Conté crayon on beige wove paper, mounted on wood-pulp board
18 1/2 x 14 ¾ in (47 x 37.5 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts; Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Norman Hirschl, 1982.8


Silhouetted against the vast, empty landscape, the heroic laborer strides purposefully as he distributes seeds. Tinges of blue and rose in the clouds are repeated in the peasant’s clothing, uniting sky and land through the figure. 

Gustave Courbet (1819–1877) 
Alms from a Beggar at Ornans, 1868
Graphite with stumping, squared, with touches of crayon on cream wove paper
11 5/16 x 8 11/16 in. (28.7 x 22.1 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1955.1846


A beggar becomes an almsgiver in this social critique that Courbet produced for publication after his controversial painting of the same subject. The impoverished man, who appears to have come from the city in the distance, takes pity on a gypsy family, suggesting that theirs is a world in which only the poor give to the poor.

Léon-Augustin Lhermitte (1844–1925) 
The Wine Press, c. 1872
Black chalk with stumping and erasing on beige laid paper, pieced together
12 x 18 13/16 in. (30.4 x 47.7 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1986.17


Lhermitte frequently depicted rural laborers. These four men with fatigued bodies and expressions pause from their work. The dimly glowing light and the harmonious arrangement of the figures lend an overall sense of melancholy, underscoring the theme of long-awaited rest. 

Édouard Manet (1832–1883) 
Boy with a Dog, from the portfolio Eight Etchings by Manet, 1862
Etching and aquatint on cream laid paper
Sheet: 14 1/16 x 10 3/8 in. (35.7 x 26.3 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1962.79


One of eight sheets that formed part of Manet’s first portfolio of prints, this work is based on a drawing probably made from life several years earlier. The subject is the artist’s young assistant and occasional model Alexandre, who committed suicide in his studio in 1859. He is recalled here in a moment of happiness with a dog nearly his size.  

Édouard Manet (1832–1883)
The Toilette, from the portfolio Eight Etchings by Manet, 1862
Etching printed in brown-black on cream laid paper 
Sheet: 20 9/16 x 13 7/8 in. (52.2 x 35.3 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1962.80


This bather draws inspiration from works by Rembrandt and Watteau. By leaving much of the area of the bather’s body lightly worked within an overall dark atmosphere created by a network of vigorously drawn lines, Manet conveys a sense of the woman’s sudden physical exposure. 

Édouard Manet (1832–1883) 
The Urchin, 1862
Lithograph on cream chine collé on white wove paper
Sheet: 20 1/16 x 14 15/16 in. (51 x 37.9 cm)
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1962.81


This lithograph is a reinterpretation of one of the artist’s canvases, which he based on paintings by Murillo and Velázquez known through reproductive prints. Manet’s image of a street-smart gamin attests to the artist’s immersion in Spanish art, as well as the productive exchange between painting and prints that informed his work in both media. 

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