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Elvin, Charles Norton. A Dictionary of Heraldry. London, 1994. 

Fox-Davies, A. C. A Complete Guide to Heraldry. London, 1956. 

Franklyn, Julian. Shield and Crest: An Account of the Art and Science of Heraldry. London, 1960. 

Gayre, Robert, of Gayre and Nigg. The Nature of Arms: An Exposition of the Meaning and Significance of Heraldry with Special Reference to Its Nobiliary Aspects. Edinburgh and London, 1961. 

Neubecker, Ottfried. A Guide to Heraldry. New York, 1979. 

Parker, James. A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry. Rutland, Vt., 1970. 

Pastoureau, Michel. Heraldry: Its Origins and Meaning. London, 1997. 

Pinches, J. H. European Nobility and Heraldry: A Comparative Study of the Titles of Nobility and Their Heraldic Exterior Ornaments for Each Country, with Historical Notes. Ramsbury, Wiltshire, 1994. 

Renesse, Théodore de, comte. Dictionnaire des figures héraldiques. 7 vols. Brussels, 1992. 

Rietstap, J. B. Armorial général. 2 vols. London, 1965. 

Rolland, V., and H. Rolland. V. & H. V. Rolland’s Illustrations to the Armorial Général. 6 vols. Baltimore, 1967. 

Rolland, V., and H. Rolland. V. & H. V. Rolland’s Supplement to the Armorial Général. 3 vols. London, 1967. 

Scher, Stephen K., ed. The Scher Collection of Commemorative Medals. New York, 2019.

Scott-Giles, C. Wilfrid. The Romance of Heraldry. London, 1957. 

Siebmacher, Johann. J. Siebmacher’s Grosses und Algemeines Wappenbuch. Nuremberg, 1890–1901. 

Von Volborth, Carl-Alexander. Heraldry: Customs, Rules and Styles. Poole, Dorset, 1981. 

Woodward, John. A Treatise on Heraldry: British and Foreign. 2 vols. Edinburgh and London, 1896.